Improvised explosive devices or IEDs are the most common instruments used by terrorists or revolutionary individuals and groups intending to explode a certain area or kill people around. These are used as roadside bombs and usually are either homemade or a form of booby trap. It has been years since such bombs are built and detonated by soldiers, military groups as well as by groups of terrorist. Several incidents of such bombings have been reported across the globe in the last few decades reflecting on the increasing use of IEDs. Given the US troops’ attacks in Iraq with the bombs as well as the growing news of IED attacks in Afghanistan, counter-actions against IEDs have become increasingly important (Freudenrich 2013).
The IEDs have been like basic pipe bombs traditionally. However, with advances in field artillery shells, IEDs, bombs and rocket propellants are detonated in several amounts. The wires currently used in roadside explosives cannot be quickly detected and detached. The use of cell phones or devices such as openers for garage doors is also used for detonation purposes. The scale of IEDs for explosions vary by height, where big vehicles and places blast. Reports are obtained mainly on the demolition and use of these bombs by U.S. forces in Afghanistan. Since these explosives are always remotely exposed, jammers have been considered significant in IEDs. It was also noted that detonators are used mainly to detonate the bombs by linking the wires. Remote explosion explosives are also possibly (Congress 2006).
A variety of machinery is also needed for the removal of these explosives or IEDs. That’s how the bombs are moved. Explosives may be set off by pressurised buttons, wires and devices such as a photo detector. In general, big military vehicles must use friction switches to set explosives. Radios, cell phones and walkie chats are several other devices that primarily use signals to set IEDs off. It is typically the job of someone standing at a distance to allow the explosives to run such remote devices at the proper time. Devices like radio and mobile phones were seen to be more effective than cable bombs (IED Defeat n.d.).
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The purpose of the analysis is to understand how explosives and IEDs are exploded or set off by means of devices such as radio and cell phones.
Considering the above-mentioned aim, the following objectives have been set for the study:
- • The report will address the use and technological requirements of the GSM cell phones.
- • Address the available 3G telecommunications specifications.
- • Address 4G LTE telephone requirements.
- • Read about networking modes UHF and VHF, including cable telephones, DECT, 2.4 GHz WiFi and 5GHz WiFi
- • Provide an outline of company devices capable of identifying and finding the contact modes.
- • Address how explosives or IEDs may be set by cell phones and radio equipment.
GSM Mobile Phones: Technical Standards
GSM or Global Mobile Communications System may define the user’s account for this specific system. It’s a TDMA-based cellular network infrastructure (What is “GSM?” 2013). TDMA applies to the multiple access technology in the Time division of mobile devices that improves data transfer and connectivity by splitting the communication channel into many slots (Rouse 2006). The implementation of GSM has rendered it easy for consumers to conveniently adjust their mobile devices, simply by extracting and inserting the SIM card (or Subscriber Identity Module) from one device. The frequency bands used by GSM today are 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz (what is ‘GSM’? 2013).
Some devices are capable of supporting all the four frequency bands and are referred as quad-band, while others supporting two or three of the bands are known as dual-band or tri-band respectively (What is “GSM”? 2013). Interception of GSM mobile devices is an easy process, more because this network does not require any authentication to its user for its use. It is basically a drawback of the GSM service. Thus the legitimacy of any system cannot be identified by the mobile device in case when they are getting connected to other devices or entering into some other networks. Also, encryption is not necessary for this type of mobile technology (Androulidakis 2012).
Considering the technical standards of GSM mobile phones, the standards involve pan-European standards for use in digital telephonic systems. Based on TDMA, GSM mobile phones are used all over the world including countries in the U.S. The frequency with which the system performs varies with varying countries. As the users of the mobile phones make particular sharing of a frequency band, or a number of frequency bands, the speeches of the users get compressed and stored in the form of information packets. The received receives this communication as the packet reaches to the other end in a decompressed form. The capacity of the GSM systems is more than the analog technologies. A single channel can be used by a total of eight users at a time (Schneiderman 2002).
Although basically TDMA is the basis for the GSM mobile phones, but in the present times, new mobile devices are also making use of the GPRS (or General Packet Radio Service) system for transmission of information signals through GSM mobile phones. It enables the transmission and reception of data at moderate rates. With GPRS also being supported by GSM mobile phones, features like MMS (or Multimedia Messaging Service) are capable of using by the users. The popularity of the GSM service has increased with it’s supporting the GPRS system, as well as features like cameras, MP3 players, and other useful applications. Text, as well as picture messages, can be created and sent across users with the GSM mobile phones within matters of very less time (Mobile Phone Standards n.d.).
TDMA which is used as the interface for GSM mobile phones is a digital link technology allowing several mobile devices to use single frequency band. The use of the bands occurs one by one and then it gets released for other devices to make use of it. GPRS has been supported by GSM to improve the process of transmission thus being an enhancement to the technology. IS-136 also covers a standard that is based on TDMA defining particular form of cellular network (Jansen 2009). With GSM using TDMA, the personal communication service or PCS gets represented. The system using a digital technology, a hybrid coder is used that allows compression of the voice at a speed of around 13Kbps followed by modulation of the transmission data. Thus with this technology, the source of data can be directly connected to a mobile device having GSM as its operating system, without having any need for a modem (Held 2002).
For the use of the GSM standards in mobile devices, a SIM card is essential. The SIM card allows the user to gain access to the GSM network service. All necessary information about the user and his account are available through the SIM card. Thus the billing of the particular user of the GSM network can be identified with the help of this identification card. If the mobile devices are not locked, then the SIM card can be easily shifted from one mobile phone to another device depending on the need for use (Babin 2006). These technical standards of the GSM network have made it easier and suitable for people to use the mobile devices for communication purposes as well as in setting off of bombs that will be discussed later.
3G Phones: Technical Standards
3G applies to Cell Technology’s third wave is relevant in the mobile uses in the present times and are moving towards further advancements. One of the greatest features of 3G technology is that the speed of transmission is faster than many other networks. This technology has enabled the use of the internet on mobile or any other wireless devices. As a result communications between individuals have increased allowing wireless devices to be used in motor vehicles as well, such as mobile phones. Considering the use of the technology in mobile phones, not only does it allow making and receiving calls, but also the use of the internet and other activities like transferring of pictures and videos have also become possible. Through the internet, any information available on the World Wide Web can be obtained with the help of mobile phones only (Sturnquist 2006).
3G represents the third generation of wireless devices or the technologies that are used in these devices. The features and standards are enhanced than the previously used wireless devices of previous generations. 3G technology offers its users with transmission of data at a higher speed, with access to multimedia in advanced manner, and roaming at an international level. Connecting the phone to the internet is the most beneficial attribute of 3G technology being used in mobile phones. Thus information from the internet can be viewed and downloaded at any point of time with ease and in lesser time than the previous generation phones. In order for a mobile phone to use the 3G technology, the device has to be compatible with its use. The rate of transfer depends on the speed of the devices, thus for devices that are slow, the rate is 384 kbps and for faster ones, the rate of transfer is between 128 and 144 kbps (Unuth 2013).
The standards of this technology include W-CDMA, WLAN and cellular radio. 3G allows the mobile devices to have video phone calls, thus having two cameras in general. However, in order to get access to this network, subscription of the user is needed. Either a SIM card or a 3G data card is essential to get the connection of the phone with the network technology. The cost of the technology is not very low and is based on information packets. It enables easier and faster telephone applications and calls even when the user is moving and hence not limited to any particular areas (Unuth 2013). The 3G technology is primarily made for the smartphones that are available for use in the present times. Increased bandwidths and increased transfer rates are the main standards or features of this technology (Brain, Tyson and Layton 2013).
Some of the cellular access technologies associated with 3G technology include CDMA2000 which is based on 2G Code Division Multiple Access, WCDMA which represents Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, and TD-SCDMA that represents Time-division Synchronous Code-division Multiple Access. The various broadband applications that are supported by 3G technology and can hence be used through a mobile phone based on this technology include “video conferencing, receiving streaming video from the Web, sending and receiving faxes and instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments” (Brain, Tyson and Layton 2013). However towers are essential to be present that can carry the signals from devices to devices (Brain, Tyson and Layton 2013).
The 3G technologies provide high speed services for radio and mobile devices. It allows symmetrical and asymmetrical transmission of data. It supports services based on circuits and packets, internet protocols and also provides real time videos. It improves the quality of voice, and efficiency of spectrum, along with greater capacity. With the use of 3G multiple services can be used at a single point of time, and it also allows international roaming. The technical specifications of 3G technology has been termed as IMT-2000, IMT representing the concept of International Mobile Telecommunications. Thus a single standard is used for multiple purposes. With the IMT-2000, there are five interfaces of the radio that are supported, where the technologies for access include TDMA, CDMA and FDMA. The licensing of this technology includes principal methods like auctioning, licensing fees, as well as comparative decisions (Licensing of Third Generation (3G) Mobile: Briefing Paper n.d.).
TDMA has been discussed earlier in the study. CDMA or the Code Division Multiple Access is used in mobile devices based on 3G technology that utilized methods to obtain locations of cellular phones depending on Time of Arrival, Angle of Arrival, Time Different of Arrival and Signal Strength (Koschik, Bèoszèormâenyi and Hellwagner 2003). FDMA represents Frequency Division Multiple Access which is used in mobile devices providing analogue transmission of data. The allocated frequency band with the network is divided into a number of channels where each of the divided channels is capable of holding digital information and voice chats. Different channels are used for subscribing to different users of the technique. It enables multiple users to use the technique without getting interfered with each other’s data transmission process (Pannu and Tomar 2010).
4G LTE Phones: Standards
4G representing the fourth generation in wireless technologies offers a new standard of speed in the connectivity of the internet. 4G allows mobile devices to get access to the ultra-broadband services. There are certain set of standards that need to be met in order to have access to this technology, as have been stated by International Communications Union-Radio communications sector in the year 2008. These standards are termed as the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced specification. For 4G technology to work, circuit switching is not enough. This technology needs to be based on all IP (or Internet Protocol) packet switching method (Understanding 4G Technology Standards 2013).
The presently used spectrum radio technology is not applicable for this technology. Instead, OFMDA (or Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Division Access) and FDE (or Frequency Domain Equalization) is necessary. The transfer rates for data in 4G have to be around 100mbps for those who are in use of a mobile device and 1gbps for those using a wireless network or roaming. If the network is a true 4G technology then it would be able to perform exchanges between different networks using the technology, without causing any loss to information being communicated. The quality of service provided by the technology is very high (Understanding 4G Technology Standards 2013).
The version of IP used by the technology is IP version 6 that proves to be an essential feature or standard of the technology that has eliminated the packet or circuit switching technologies. However, 4G technology is still confusing for many of its users. In fact, it is also claimed that true 4G technology has not yet been delivered. The ones that are available and used in the market represent near to the 4G technology. This is particularly because the standards of the ITU-R have not been completely met yet by the technology and thus the technology is also referred as 3.9G. In the present times, LTE Advanced and 802.16m are the two candidates for 4G technologies that have been placed to the ITU (or International Telecommunication Union) where the LTE is standardized by 3GPP and 802.16m by the IEEE or WinMax. These standards and hence the technologies have been accepted and approved by the ITU by the year 2011. However, they have not yet been implemented on large scale in the mobile phones market (Understanding 4G Technology Standards 2013).
With the 4G technology in the market, a significant evolution has and is occurring in the use of mobile devices. The technology has removed the limitations that were previously present with the IP addresses. Although the technology has not yet been completely found to be complaint with the use of mobile phones, yet its features of increased data transfer and easy and fast handovers of the networks are leading to the advancement in the use of mobile phones with the use of 4G technology (Understanding 4G Technology Standards 2013). LTE or Long Term Evolution is considered as the gold standard for the use of 4G technology. Considering the present use of smartphones, it is always suggested to use phones that can support the LTE (Segan 2012).
Not only does the LTE provide faster speeds than the 3G technology, it has also been obtained in the recent times that LTE technology proved to be 21 times faster than 3G. The reliability of LTE is also higher than the 3G technology, particularly when the coverage is properly achieved. Thus the experience of the internet is much better with a LTE technology, with buffering being less and connections are also not lost frequently. However, the use of this technology is not yet frequent among its users and hence less found. Certain mobile phone companies have been reported to use LTE. It is expected that the technology will spread widely over the next few years (Segan 2012).
UHF and VHF Methods of Communication
UHF and VHF represent ultra high frequency and very high frequency of data transmission that are used for purposes of communication. Radios, cordless phones, DECT, 2.4 GHz WiFi and 5GHz WiFi are some of the methods of communication that make use of UHF and VHF. Radios making use of UHF and VHF can be used only on demand which is different than in the case with methods of communication based on satellites. Thus the collar needs to be contacted for transmission of data when there is a need for such high frequencies. The range of the UHF and VHF depends to a great extent on the position of the user and his hardware (VHF and UHF On-Site Radio Communication 2010).
High frequencies (HF) are long used for the purpose of communication. HF varies in its frequency from 2 to 30MHz at times of communication. HFs have the capability to allow communications across the globe as single sidebands are used for these signal transmissions, with a concealed carrier modulation that reflects around 2.5kHz size of the bandwidth. However, the availability of the HFs depends largely on the weather conditions, thus often getting affected by the changes in climate, as well as on the time and day, frequency, and the spot activity of the sun. In order to achieve an effective communication, two stations need to be connected successfully (Golio 2003).
VHFs generally consist of two different bands of frequency. UHFs are useful in bridging the regions between the UHF and VHFs. Radios are mostly known to use these high frequencies for communication (Golio 2003). However there are other devices as well that nowadays make use of VHF and UHF. For cordless phones, radio waves based on HFs are useful for the purpose of communication. UHF and VHF both have their advantages and disadvantages. Thus using one of them cannot be suggested as suitable for radio waves and transmission of data. UHF has been found to be used in cordless phones, and in GPS navigation services, and WiFi. While UHF allows data transmission working between wavelengths of 300MHz and 3000 MHz, VHF can work between wavelengths of 30MHz and 300MHz (Taggart 2013).
The most standard for cordless phones is the DECT (or Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications). Radio frequencies are used for these devices for transmission of information. Cordless telephony holds a separate classification as far as radio frequencies are used for its broadcast as wireless technology. With UHF and VHF applicable to wireless technologies, not only the user can receive data, but can also retrieve them and send data as well. GSM is one of the standards that support the wireless technologies based on radio frequencies. Also IEEE (or Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standards are used (Vidojkovic et al 2008).
DECT has the capability to support several cordless applications. Thus telephones used in homes, as well as wireless local area networks are also covered under this standard. The operation of DECT takes place with UHF in the band between frequencies this standard also provides multiple accesses with the incorporation of FDMA and TDMA (Ryan and Frater 2002). 1880 and 1900MHz. 2.4GHz waves are called the microwaves that represent the high end of the spectrum of radio waves. It allows high speed for communication, along with high links for capacity and satellite communications, thus enabling the services of WiFi with UHF and VHF (Baldauf and Stair 2010). The 2.4GHz spectrum is applicable in both cordless phones as well as for WiFi services. It holds great value as lower frequency waves can travel greater distances better and can also pass through walls and obstacles (Segan 2007). In the present times, frequencies of 900MHz, 2.4GHz and 5GHz are most commonly used for wireless communications (Stewart 2011). Although the services provided by the 5GHz frequencies are better for WiFi networks, yet 2.4GHz frequency is the most common band being available and used in the present times. Thus in many cases, dual frequency band is tried to be used to increase the number of access points (Coleman and Westcott 2012).
Commercial Devices that Can Detect and Locate Different Forms of Communication
The different methods of communication as mentioned above can be detected and located with the use of modular and scalable electronic suite. This is referred as a resolve system where nodes are used for interception and finding the communication methods, that are either working independently or in the form of some network. The nodes used are either single user, fully integrated or mast mounted (A modular and scalable electronic warfare suite for the interception and geolocation of tactical communications 2012).
Manpack is a single user technique that that provides an effective surveillance and attack system electronically. It allows direction finding with full spectrum for independent communications systems. For those that are networked, targets can be fixed with the help of Angle of Arrival processes. On-the-march, On-the-move, and Static are the three configurations based on which the program works (Manpack 2012). An integrated vehicle system allows fitting into a number of platforms where the detection of the communication method is possible with its movement along any direction. It increased the range, harvests the power that is needed, and fixes the running as well (Integrated Vehicle System 2012).
Mast mounted solutions involve a range of mast mounted surveillance processes for the purpose of detection. It has the capability to cover full range with use of its sensors and configurations of antenna. Masts of 7m to 50m are installed for the purpose. AGS unit, switch box and VQuad are incorporated, and the antenna is digitized. With the MastQuad, coverage is obtained in a seamless manner providing high sensitivity. The coverage holds around 20MHz to 3GHz. The design of the dipole allows greater detection facility which is designed in a way to allow higher sensitivity (Mast Mounted Solutions 2012).
UHF and VHF Radio
Radio waves are characterized in the forms of amplitude, frequency and wavelength. The amplitude represents its height or strength that is calculated by the distance between its peak and its lowest point. Wavelength presents the distance formed between the crests of the waves. Frequency represents the number of times or cycles that the wave can finish within a certain period of time. Considering the frequency bands involved in the transmission of data using radio, high frequencies including UHF and VHF are associated. The frequencies ranging between 3 to 30MHz represent the high frequency band. It is considered as VHF or very high frequency when the band is between 30 to 300MHz. The wavelengths of VHF vary between 10meters from the lower end to 1 meter at the upper end (Harris 2000).
Thus the antenna sizes in this case are small and the tuning of the radio is also smaller in range. This is advantageous for single user radios. The frequency band ranging between 300 to 2450MHz is referred as the UHF or ultra high frequency. In this case the range of the wavelength can vary between 300 to 512MHz. These are very useful in aircrafts of high speed where the frequency can make use of very small antennas. In the earlier times, only a single band could be used for a tactical transceiver. However, with the growing need to compress separate radios, common transceivers are available for UHF, VHF and tactical satellites. A modulated signal needs to be generated by a simple transceiver to the antenna followed by receiving the signal from the antenna and after demodulation of the signal, it is passed on to the receiving end of the communication route. For the purpose of communication the data, Morse codes were earlier used by radios. With need for improvement, advanced techniques have been developed for the purpose (Harris 2000).
The basic difference when radios either use the UHF or the VHF is in the range of frequencies that they use. It has been observed that the radios using VHF have been into existence for a longer period of time than those using UHF. VHF radios are much cheaper than the UHF radios. The spectrum of VHF radios is narrower than the UHF radios and the number of channels is also less for VHF radios, therefore it causes more congestion in the routes of data communication. This has greater possibilities of interference that might occur from other radio devices. With the higher level of frequency in the UHF, much smaller antennas are capable of use. Thus compact models can be created with the use of UHF. Users desire UHF radios more since smaller models become easier to carry and use (Difference Between UHF and VHF Radios 2010).
Although both the radio devices are good and beneficial for the purpose of data communication; however with certain differences, one seems to be an improved version than the other, particularly depending on the need of communication. For all its features and advantages, UHF radios have proved to be better and more demanding than the VHF radios. With further advancements and need for improved techniques for data communication, the UHF radios are gradually gaining more importance than the VHF radios. The range of frequencies that can be utilized is more in UHF than VHF. However, the device would be costlier than the one using VHF. Moreover, the battery of the device using UHF gets drained faster than the radios using VHF. Thus, both have their own advantages and disadvantages and depending on the need of the user, one might prove to be better than the other with both allowing effective communication of necessary information (Difference Between UHF and VHF Radios 2010).
Setting Off of IEDs (or roadside bombs) Using Radios and Mobile Devices
As the different features and technical standards of the currently used mobile devices as well as of the radio devices and their frequencies have been discussed, it can now be related to the setting off or detonation of roadside bombs or IEDs using these frequencies, wavelengths and the devices. With the use of these devices, it has become possible to detonate IEDs from a remote area unlike the earlier times when the detonation had to depend on use of wires. Thus enemy groups of any countries, and particularly as have been observed in case of attacks on U.S., the use of IEDs in Iraq and Afghanistan, are having greater advantages with such remotely used devices enabling the process of detonation or setting off of the bomb (Remotely Initiated IEDs: GSM Phones and Beyond 2005).
With such devices and their advanced features, a particular roadside bomb can be set off just at the time when the detonator wants to set it off. There are least chances of detection of the bomb since wires are not used in the planting of the bomb (Remotely Initiated IEDs: GSM Phones and Beyond 2005). The evolution of the IEDs proves to be of major threats to countries. Earlier the targets of such bombs used to be only the individuals or groups of enemies. However with the techniques being advanced, common people have also become the target in the present times. With the use of explosives that can be made at homes, and the mobile and radio devices accompanied, the process of detonating a bomb at a place or location of choice and at a time when it is demanded, has become absolutely easy to obtain (The evolution of IEDs n.d.).
Reports of triggering the detonation of roadside bombs and deaths of people as a result of setting off such bombs are almost daily being reported in countries like the U.S. Cell phones have been found to be most commonly used device in the process, allowing the detonation of the bombs from remote areas. With the phone being used, a call or the ring on the phone and its vibration could lead to the setting off of the bombs, as have been reported in several cases. The ringer of the phone can be so designed and arranged with the bomb, that when the phone rings it can create a connection between any two components of the bomb, as designed, and lead to trigger the bomb to explode (Greenemeier 2013).
The concept is to allow a connection between the positive and the negative circuit and then the fuse needs to be set off. If a timed fuse is used, often they lead to failure as the setting off of the bomb may not occur just on the time as desired. Cell phones instead have made this process more reliable. Any one user of the cell phone can watch the bomb from a distance and when they desire, they can use the connection to ring the cell phone that might be attached with the bomb. With the ringing of the phone, the bomb can set off (Greenemeier 2013). IEDs can also be exploded using remote devices with the help of electromagnetic energy (Quick 2011).
In order to achieve the detonation of the bombs from a distance, the frequencies and wavelengths of the devices being utilized need to studied thoroughly and understand them to make use of them effectively in the process of detonation, particularly for the right timing and effect of the devices on the setting off of the bomb. Short impulses with very fast timing of response are essential for the purpose (Quick 2011). Roadside bombs are hidden along the sides of the roads. Since they are hidden, they cannot be detected with ease. Moreover, since in the present times, use of wires is not done, the process of detection has become more problematic. Human observers are mostly responsible for causing the detonation of the bombs at the right time with the use of radios of mobile phone devices that have high frequencies and wavelengths leading to reach the trigger to set off the bombs (Coxworth 2012).
Warnings have already been placed by the governments of these countries in regard to the potential threats caused by the groups of enemies in their uses of cell phone and radio frequencies in detonation of roadside bombs. Modified cell phones are often used with the help of another cell phone to trigger the bombs. The difficulty in preventing such measures is due to the fact that use of cell phones is highly common, with almost every individual using these devices for normal communication purposes and it is not possible to suspect each and every individual. Cell phones having the facilities like Bluetooth are more dangerous and considering the present day mobile devices, almost every cell phone has this facility within the sets (Osborne 2003).
Thus although the cell phones are tools of easy and cool use proving great benefits for normal human beings, on the other hand, for terrorist groups, this is the primary tool being used to destroy people and destroy countries. In other words, enhancement in the technologies of mobile phones is proving to be harmful in this way causing matter of severe concern. However, it has also been suggested that removing all advanced features from the mobile devices would not be a probable solution. This is primarily because terrorists would always be using some technology or the other for their purposes to be fulfilled. Thus even if the cell phones are not there, they would be using some other technology or advancement. By removing features that are proving to cause threats, normal human beings would be affected in taking advantages of the advanced latest technologies that are actually proving their lives and tasks to be performed with ease and saving time for them (Osborne 2003).
From the above study it could be obtained that IEDs or roadside bombs have become matters of serious concern, particularly in the present times with the increasing use of advanced technologies allowing devices like radios and mobile devices to be used to easily detonate or set off these bombs with ease. As the different technical standards and features of the mobile devices used in the present times have been discussed, it is clear that the frequencies and wavelengths that they are capable of using in data transmission and for the purpose of communication, the use of these devices has become advantageous for the enemy groups who are constantly making use of these advances for the wrong purposes.
The smartphones allowing the third and fourth generation of wireless technologies have led to greater advantages in using them for data communication over large areas as well as in downloading of necessary information as the devices allow the use of the internet technology as well. Thus preparing the bombs and then setting them off has become easy for the individuals and groups of enemies. Earlier the use of wires used to be done, and timed systems that often failed by not exploding at the right time. The detection of the systems was also easy in the earlier times.
Now, in the present times, without the need of any wires connecting the bombs, the explosions have become easy to achieve only with the trigger of the bomb or the signal that can be obtained with the ringing of the phone or use of radio frequencies. The wireless technologies using high frequencies like the UHF and VHF are also allowing the present day mobile and cordless devices to make use of these frequencies to pass the signals of data transmission through the techniques. Moreover, these devices have become easily accessible to the users as well. Although in some cases, as in the use of 4G technologies, special permission or formatting is necessary for getting access to the technology; however technologies till the 3G are easily available for the users.
In fact, most of the new generation phones are based on 3G technologies allowing internet technologies and high advances of frequencies allowing multiple accesses enabling the use of the phones in detonation of bombs easier. It can thus be concluded that with the new advances in the radio and mobile phone devices, and with the availability of high frequencies and wavelengths, the use of these devices in the setting off of bombs is now easily achieved. The triggering of the bombs with the use of these devices has been reported several times at several places.
It can be concluded that while on one hand the world is developing in terms of increasing use and advancement of technologies; on the other hand, the use of these devices in wrong activities have also increased that increases the concerns for the safety of the world and its citizens as a whole. Mobile phones are nowadays providing with the best of the technologies and uses of information and data transmission using high frequencies, leading to setting off of roadside bombs or IEDs.
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