Table of Contents
- Literature Review
Boulos,Maged N. Kamel et al. “How smartphones are changing the face of mobile and participatory healthcare: an overview, with example from eCAALYX”. Biomedical Engineering Online 10(24). 2011. Web. 9 November 2013. <http://www.biomedical-engineering-online.com/content/10/1/24>
Summary: Smartphones’ improved capacity, ubiquity, and versatility are being utilized for more and more uses, particularly in the fields of improving the availability of health care facilities to save lives and enhance patient conditions. This paper provides an illustration from an application/platform for mobile computing named eCAALYX to illustrate certain uses in real health care contexts (Boulous et al.).
Assessment: This paper is very useful in terms of demonstrating the increasing use of smartphones to extend the power of mobile computing to new application areas that benefit people, in this case in the delivery of health care services that improve lives (Boulos et al.).
Quotations: “Several previous studies have evaluated the use of mobile phones to support healthcare and public health interventions, notably in the collection and collation of data for healthcare research, and as used in support of medical and healthcare education and clinical practice in the community. Some studies have highlighted the successful use of mobile phones to support telemedicine and remote healthcare in developing nations, with examples including their use in off-site medical diagnosis and as information support in the treatment of HIV care in difficult to reach rural areas” (Boulos et al.).
Burdette, Steven, Thomas Herchline and Richard Oehler. “Practicing Medicine in a Technological Age: Using Smartphones in Clinical Practice”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47. 2008. Web. 9 November 2013. <http://epocrates.us/company/news/uchicago08.pdf>
Summary: The paper surveys the emerging use of smartphones as device and platforms for improving health care practices, via the provision of new ways to access medical information and new trends and developments in medicine, and via ubiquitous access to medical databases such as those that relate to infectious diseases, antibiotic databases, tools such as medical calculators, and the so-called Sanford Guide for infectious diseases, among others (Burdette, Herchline and Oehler).
Assessment: The peer-reviewed article appears in a well-regarded publication and opens the door for more discussions and more explorations into the use of smartphones to improve medical practice. This is a very good article that also opens up possibilities and demonstrates use cases that can be extended to other disciplines and to other areas in the medical field (Burdette, Herchline and Oehler).
Quotations: “As smartphones become more popular, there may be a transition from free-standing medical software (such as Epocrates or Hopkins Antibiotic Guide) to Web-based software. All available devices currently have the ability to view Web sites, with some devices having a much better aesthetic appearance than others”. “The Hopkins Antibiotic Guide has been available for many years, mostly for the Palm OS. Originally designed for the Palm OS and Pocket PC 2003 platforms, it has recently been made available through Skyscape (http://www.skyscape.com), expanding the available platforms. The guide has 3 main sections: syndromes, pathogens, and antibiotics” (Burdette, Herchline and Oehler 121).
Bryant, Martin. “Nexus 5 Review: Finally, a near-perfect fusion of Android hardware and software”. The Next Web. 9 November 2013. Web. 10 November 2013. <http://thenextweb.com/google/2013/11/09/nexus-5-review/>
Summary: The article presents a review of the Nexus 5, the latest Android smartphone from Google that makes use of the latest iteration of the Android software, Android KitKat. As well, the article details the most important features of the new software version, and how those features play well and seamlessly with the new hardware (Bryant).
Assessment: The article presents the cutting edge in new technology as presented by the originator of the Android software itself, Google, and this is important in understanding how far smartphones have evolved from its early days (Bryant).
Quotations: “The 1920×1080, 445 ppi display is bright and beautiful to look at, really making Android 4.4 KitKat’s interface sing. It handles photos and HD video capably. Although its pixel density is slightly lower than the HTC One’s 469ppi, that’s only really noticeable if you squint – this is a perfectly good 1080p display and incredibly easy on the eye. Comparing the movie ‘Ice Age’ running on an HTC One and the Nexus 5, the only noticeable difference was the sound. As you’d expect, the HTC One won by a mile in that respect”. “The Nexus 5 brings with it the “Okay Google…” voice commands that made the Motorola Moto X so appealing, although there are some caveats. While the Moto X is constantly listening out for those magic words in order to do your bidding, the Nexus 5 will only accept voice command on the homescreen” (Bryant).
Dice. “LG Announces Mass Production of Flexible OLED Phone Displays”. Slashdot. 7 October 2013. Web. 10 November 2013. <http://tech.slashdot.org/story/13/10/07/1555256/lg-announces-mass-production-of-flexible-oled-phone-displays>
Summary: The posting reveals production plans by LG for flexible OLED phone displays, which would revolutionize the design and manufacture of smartphones and pave the way for bendable designs that do not break. Departing from glass, the material is based on plastic, and augurs well for the evolution of smartphones that are more flexible and lighter (Dice).
Assessment: The article stresses design and innovation in manufacturing processes on the part of LG, which has ramifications for the entire smartphone industry. The article is important for being a bellwether of important developments in smartphones and the pace of technological innovation in the space (Dice).
Quotations: “LG today announced that it is to start mass producing flexible OLED display panels for smartphones. The company says that its technology uses plastic substrates rather than glass, and claims that a protective film on the back of the display makes it ‘unbreakable’ as well as bendable.” (Dice).
Ekekwe, Ndubuisi. “Is Your Smartphone Making You Less Productive?”. Harvard Business Review. 6 April 2012. Web. 10 November 2013. <http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/04/is-your-smartphone-making-you/>
Summary: The article weighs in on whether smartphones boost or derail productivity in the workplace. The thesis is that to a certain degree, the hyperactivity that is associated with multitasking and being connected always via the powerful mobile devices can derail productivity rather than enhance work output and prospects for success (Ekekwe).
Assessment: The article adds to the body of research that examines the impact of smartphones on the daily lives of people, including workplace productivity (Ekekwe).
Quotations: ” In an experiment that focused on mandating time off for consultants for at least one night per week, she noticed that — over time — their work lives improved, and they were largely more productive. For the research subjects who followed her policy of disconnecting from work at night, 78% said that they “feel satisfied” with their jobs, compared to the group of people who ignored the policy, where only 49% noted the same sense of satisfaction. Her results show that we’re creating a self-perpetuating perception that working faster is better — even when speed may not be necessary”. “The reality is that business processes have been changed by technology. Competition is now global and companies need to act fast to survive. Accordingly, we have institutionalized a system where customers and staff expect everyone to be always-connected. And with that, 24/7 speed has become a key performance metric. The impetus to examine whether what we do requires 24/7 responsiveness is overlooked. We all work longer and harder, despite the possibility that we could work better. But since everyone is doing it, it’s considered acceptable” (Ekekwe).
Gulati, Daniel. “Smartphones, Silly Users”. Harvard Business Review. 4 January 2013. Web. 10 November 2013. < http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/01/smartphones-silly-users/ >
Summary: The article looks at trends in smartphone usage and points out some of the unexpected consequences of those uses with regard to user habits and behaviors. The article notes that smartphones have changed the way people think, remember, and relate to technology and to each other. Those have implications for learning and for work, among other things (Gulati).
Assessment: The article is useful for explaining the unexpected consequences of the smartphone lifestyle on human behavior, cognition, and relationships. This is important in studying the various aspects of smartphone use among people and in society (Gulati).
Quotations: ” With a huge and growing user base of nearly half of American adults, smartphones are now a core part of our daily lives. Evolving far beyond the email productivity tools pioneered by RIM in the early 2000s, iPhones and Android handsets now dominate the mobile landscape with industry-leading functionality and advanced ecosystems. The value proposition? That we’ll work and play faster, longer, better, and smarter. In fact, we found that over 40% of young business leaders ranked mobile as the most important technology to business in the twenty-first century (cloud computing came in second at 13%)”. “Research shows that we’re increasingly outsourcing our personal memory banks to Google and other search engines, effectively wiping our own brains of easily accessible information. But as the growth of apps per device skyrockets and user interfaces simplify, we’re relying on more cognitive crutches than ever” (Gulati).
Huddleston, Rob. Android Fully Loaded. John Wiley & Sons. 2012. Google Books. 9 November 2013 <http://books.google.com>
Summary: The book provides an in-depth discussion of the various aspects of the Android operating system, the most widely-used mobile operating system for smartphones and tablets on earth. The book is customer-centric, and provides various tips and guides for optimizing the use of Android smartphones for various purposes and uses (Huddleston).
Assessment: Having the widest selection of apps on the planet, Android is important to understand, and is almost synonymous with smartphones for majority of people. There is value in looking at how Android is used by ordinary people, and how the apps are best suited for various purposes (Huddleston).
Quotations: “These new mobile technologies have also opened up a new world for developers, providing an exciting and rapidly expanding market for applications built for mobile devices, which in turn provides you, the end user, a seemingly limitless supply of apps that will increase your productivity by enabling you to check e-mail, read and edit documents, view presentations, and much more- all on your device” (Huddleston xv).
Mezue, Bryan. “Can Chinese Smartphone Darling Xiaomi Compete in Western Markets?”. Harvard Business Review. 24 September 2013. Web. 10 November 2013. <http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/09/can-chinese-smartphone-darling-xiaomi-compete-in-western-markets/>
Summary: The article discusses the prospects of Xiaomi, the Chinese smartphone company, in the international and western markets, in the context of past successes and failures of Chinese brands in different product categories through time. The article proposes several strategies and warns of possible pitfalls in the move of Xiaomi to target western markets, and weighs in on its prospects to compete effectively with Apple, Google and others (Mezue).
Assessment: This is a well-thought out discussion on international trends in mobile computing seen from the perspective of the attempt of a Chinese smartphone brand to penetrate western markets and compete with the big players in the space. It is valuable in situating the smartphone industry in the present international business contexts (Mezue).
Quotations: “The better path for Chinese consumer brands seeking expansion to the West is to focus on consumers not yet in the smartphone market. Instead of targeting current customers of the incumbent (who already have sophisticated social/emotional needs associated to the product), they should target non-consumers with a compelling functional offering and help mold their social/emotional associations”. “If Xiaomi chooses to prioritize foreign markets with low penetration of iPhones and high-end smartphones (e.g. India, African markets), the dominant entry strategy is to focus on cultivating the vast pool of non-consumers of high-end smartphones. Xiaomi’s resources should thus be directed towards converting feature-phone users to their phones, or educating a new generation of consumers without phones” (Mezue).
Reuters. “5.6 billion smartphones by 2019, mobile data traffic to grow ten fold: Ericsson”. NDTV Gadgets. 11 November 2013. Web. 11 November 2013 <http://gadgets.ndtv.com/mobiles/news/56-billion-smartphones-by-2019-mobile-data-traffic-to-grow-ten-fold-ericsson-444625 >
Summary: The news story details projections by the telecommunications equipment provider Ericsson relating to the growth in demand for data that is to be fueled by the meteoric rise in sales of smartphones, to 5.6 billion by 2019. This will prompt the telco providers to invest in capacity to accommodate the spike in demand for data and related services (Reuters).
Assessment: The news story provides a backdrop for the study of smartphones and the central role that they will play as the primary computing device for billions of people on the planet (Reuters)
Quotations: “The world’s top mobile network equipment maker said it expected 5.6 billion smartphone subscriptions globally by the end of 2019, up from 1.9 billion in 2013, as more people in emerging markets buy cheap smartphones instead of basic phones”. “To meet the higher pressure on telecom networks as data traffic surges, operators will expand high-capacity 4G, or LTE, to cover more than 65 percent of the world’s population by 2019, up from around 10 percent in 2012, Ericsson said” (Reuters).
Zheng, Pei and Lionel Ni. Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing. Morgan Kaufmann/Elsevier. 2006. Google Books. 9 November 2013 <http://books.google.com>
Summary: The book explores the smart phone as an evolving computing terminal of wide availability, portability, and use in various settings and use cases. The technical discussion on the underlying protocols and technologies that make the smart phone possible are explored and discussed in some detail (Zheng and Ni).
Assessment: The book provides a credible technological overview of the underlying bolts and nuts of smart phones and the components that make them up. The intent is to demonstrate the increasing complexity and computing sophistication of the phones, to be eventual replacements for other computing devices that were then mainstream. This is valuable in situating the evolution of present-day smartphones and how they are positioned for the future (Zheng and Ni).
Quotations: “The book provides an in-depth coverage of next-generation mobile computing paradigm, including mobile wireless technologies, mobile services and applications, and research and development challenges surrounding backend systems, network infrastructure, and mobile terminals including smart phones and other mobile devices” (Zheng and Ni xx). “To fulfill the need for mobile and pervasive computing, researchers and practitioners have to face many challenges encountered in both design and implementation of a viable application or service” (Zheng and Ni xxii).